Children love to hear their grandparents and parents recount the details of whence their family came, the genealogy of who they are, how they came about and why they are. Indeed, our heritage depends on the continuous retelling of such important events.
This is why we take pleasure each year at this time recounting some of the lesser discussed details surrounding the birth of Jesus Christ. We all know what happened on “Christmas” — as St. Luke masterfully wrote in his Gospel (see box). But having some of the context that led up to this holy, remarkable day adds to its richness.
In truth, Jesus’ birth is a story for Jews and Christians alike. After all, Jesus’ parents, Mary and Joseph, were Jews. And the setting for this momentous, monumental event was in the heart of the land that God promised to Abraham and Moses — Israel.
The main characters leading up to Jesus’ birth — Mary, Joseph, Mary’s cousin, Elizabeth, and her husband, Zacharias — were anything but celebrities in their day. They were as common as Iowa farmers. And yet, in reality, Mary and Joseph were indeed connected to royalty. Biblical scholars write they actually were cousins, both descendants from the lineage of King David, the longtime king of Israel.
But at that time — which was around 4 B.C. — the Jews of Judea (central Israel), were anything but a privileged, royal class. They were living under the rule of Caesar Augustus and his vast Roman empire and under the unpredictability of the maniac, King Herod, an Arab-Jew who ruled over Jerusalem and Bethlehem as a “client” king for Caesar Augustus.
“Herod inflicted such outrages upon (the Jews) as not even a beast could have done if it possessed the power to rule over men,” wrote the biblical historian Josephus. What’s more, Herod became infamous for murdering his wife, his wife’s father, her brother, three of his own sons and 300 of his military leaders.
Nonetheless, under Herod, the Jews managed to live with what biblical historian James Edward Talmadge called “some semblance of national autonomy.” They could practice their religion without much interference.
But there was no doubt the Jews did not relish their domination. The Jews kept to themselves and held particular dislike for the Samaritans, a racially mixed people. “The enmity between Jew and Samaritan was so intense that travelers between Judea and Galilee would make long detours rather than pass through Samaria,” Talmadge wrote.
This is what Mary and Joseph would encounter after they received word of Caesar Augustus’ order for a census. He demanded that everyone register in his hometown. For Mary and Joseph, this meant traveling from Nazareth in Galilee in the north to Bethlehem in Judea — an 80-mile journey. That would have taken them right through Samaria. And let’s not forget: Mary was nine months pregnant.
In his gospel on the birth of Christ, St. Luke was sparing on the details of Mary and Joseph’s trip. The fact there are few details must mean it was mostly uneventful. But you could imagine it otherwise: Any woman in her ninth month of pregnancy is physically miserable — can’t sit for long stretches, can’t sleep. So imagine Mary and Joseph traveling in a caravan or with Mary riding on a donkey. It was cold at night.
The trip would have taken about four days. On Dec. 23, they had two days to go before reaching Bethlehem. And at this point in the trip, they would just be passing through Samaria. Jewish travelers were marks for bandits.
God was watching over Mary and Joseph, of course. They made it, but only to find out that Bethlehem, normally a sleepy little town, was bustling with Jews who had returned to register for the census. There was no room at the inn.
Mary and Joseph, we know, found a stable. But this wasn’t the stable we see on the Hallmark Christmas cards. The stables in those days often were dark, cold caves with “mangers” — animal-feeding troughs carved into the stone walls; they were not wooden cribs padded with dry, neatly arranged hay.
With nowhere else to go, Mary gave birth … under the stars, amid the manure and muck, among the sheep, cows and chickens, no doctors present to administer an epidural, with Joseph, her carpenter husband, assisting as best he could. Those who have witnessed birth know it’s difficulty in a hospital bed. Imagine the scene in a smelly, cold cave.
Yet, this lowly, humble setting was the way Jesus Christ, the Savior whom God sent for mankind, came into this world.
Contrast the differences: Caesar Augustus maneuvering for worldly power and the biggest worldwide celebrity of his day; Herod the Great, a regional celebrity, abusing his power over his small dominion in unspeakable ways. They were all about status and ego.
Mary and Joseph were the antithesis. Humble, not materially wealthy, ordinary in all appearances. And yet they were extraordinary. God sent his messenger, the angel Gabriel, and stunned Mary that she would conceive miraculously and bring forth a son — the Son of the Highest who would “reign over the house of Jacob forever.” She would be his mother.
And Joseph, the quiet carpenter, he fretted over what would happen to Mary, his fiancée, if people found out she was pregnant before they were married. The angel Gabriel gave comfort to Joseph, just as he did to Mary.
And with humility and obedience and far below the radar screen of celebrity status, they carried out God’s will, remembering all the while Gabriel’s assurance to Mary: “For with God, nothing shall be impossible.”
This is our heritage. Merry Christmas.
(Editor’s note: This originally appeared in the Dec. 23, 2010, edition.) — MW
… For unto you is born this day …
And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed.
(And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.
And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.
And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.
And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.
And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.
And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.
And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.
And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. — St. Luke, 2:1-16, King James Bible
The proclamation of the birth of Christ
The following is the Proclamation of the Birth of Christ declared each year in Rome:
Today, the 25th day of December, unknown ages from the time when God created the heavens and the earth and then formed man and woman in his own image.
Several thousand years after the flood, when God made the rainbow shine forth as a sign of the covenant.
Twenty-one centuries from the time of Abraham and Sarah; 13 centuries after Moses led the people of Israel out of Egypt.
Eleven hundred years from the time of Ruth and the Judges; 1,000 years from the anointing of David as king; in the 65th week according to the prophecy of Daniel.
In the 194 Olympiad; the 752nd year from the foundation of the city of Rome.
The 42nd year of the reign of Octavian Augustus; the whole world being at peace, Jesus Christ, eternal God and Son of the eternal Father, desiring to sanctify the world by his most merciful coming, being conceived by the Holy Spirit, and nine months having passed since his conception, was born in Bethlehem of Judea of the Virgin Mary.
Today is the nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh.
WHEN WAS JESUS BORN?
According to the Gregorian calendar, by which we measure years, there was no year “0,” which you would expect to be the year Christ was born.
Biblical historians have concluded Jesus must have been born in late 5 B.C. or 4 B.C.
One of the ways they determined this was the fact King Herod the Great died in 2 B.C. Jesus obviously was born before this, because upon hearing of the Christ child’s birth, Herod ordered the death of all males under the age of 2.